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When I was in middle school, I had a friend in the track club who normally studied 3 hours a day. He didn't speed up the pace before tests. On the contrary, he didn't have any club activities and so had lot of free time, so before the test we would go to his house and play video games every day. If we hadn't done that, I would have gotten better grades too.
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Vocabulary list

chuugaku
noun
  1. junior high school; middle school; lower secondary school
no
particle
  1. indicates possessive (occasionally ん, orig. written 乃 or 之)
  2. nominalizes verbs and adjectives
  3. substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases
  4. (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion (often ん)
  5. (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis
  6. (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
toki
noun
  1. time; hour; moment (刻 signifies a time of day; 秋 signifies an important time)
noun, adverb
  1. occasion; case
noun
  1. chance; opportunity; season
  2. the times; the age; the day
  3. tense
ha
particle
  1. topic marker particle (pronounced わ in modern Japanese)
  2. indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated)
  3. adds emphasis
fudankara
expression, adverb, no adjective
  1. on a routine basis; regularly; habitually
fudan
no adjective, noun
  1. usual; normal; everyday; habitual; ordinary (orig. written as 不断)
noun, adverb
  1. usually; normally; generally; habitually; always
kara
particle
  1. from (e.g. time, place, numerical quantity); since
  2. from (originator); by
  3. because; since (follows verbs, adjectives)
  4. out of (constituent, part)
  5. through (e.g. window, vestibule)
  6. after; since (following the te-form of a verb)
  7. expresses sympathy or warning
mainichi
noun, adverb
  1. every day
san
numeric
  1. three (参 is used in legal documents)
prefix
  1. tri-
jikan
noun
  1. time
  2. hour
  3. period; class; lesson
da
copula
  1. be; is (plain copula)
auxiliary verb
  1. did; (have) done (た after certain verb forms; indicates past or completed action)
  2. please; do (indicates light imperative)
ka
particle
  1. yes?; no?; isn't it?; is it? (used at sentence-end; indicates a question (sometimes rhetorical))
  2. or; whether or not (after each alternative)
  3. some- (e.g. something, someone) (after an interrogative)
  4. hmm; huh (indicates doubt, uncertainty, etc.; sometimes after other particles)
prefix
  1. very (emphatic prefix; usu. before an adjective)
suffix
  1. -al; -ial; -ic; -ical; -ish; -y (suffix forming adjectives or adverbs; after an indeclinable word)
adverb
  1. in that way
benkyou
noun, suru verb
  1. study
  2. diligence
  3. discount; reduction
suru

te-form

shite
suru verb (irregular)
  1. to do; to carry out; to perform
  2. to cause to become; to make (into); to turn (into)
  3. to serve as; to act as; to work as
  4. to wear (clothes, a facial expression, etc.)
  5. to judge as being; to view as being; to think of as; to treat as; to use as (as 〜にする,〜とする)
  6. to decide on; to choose (as 〜にする)
suru verb (irregular), intransitive verb
  1. to be sensed (of a smell, noise, etc.) (as 〜がする)
  2. to be (in a state, condition, etc.)
  3. to be worth; to cost
  4. to pass (of time); to elapse
suru verb (irregular), transitive verb
  1. to place, or raise, person A to a post or status B (as AをBにする)
  2. to transform A to B; to make A into B; to exchange A for B (as AをBにする)
  3. to make use of A for B; to view A as B; to handle A as if it were B (as AをBにする)
  4. to feel A about B (as AをBにする)
suffix, suru verb (irregular)
  1. verbalizing suffix (applies to nouns noted in this dictionary with the part of speech "vs")
auxiliary verb, suru verb (irregular)
  1. creates a humble verb (after a noun prefixed with "o" or "go")
  2. to be just about to; to be just starting to; to try to; to attempt to (as 〜うとする,〜ようとする)
Suffix after the te form of a verb
iru
ichidan verb, auxiliary verb
  1. to be ...-ing; to have been ...-ing (after the -te form of a verb; indicates continuing action or state)
rikujoubu
noun
  1. track and field club
rikujou
noun, no adjective
  1. (on) land; ground; shore
noun
  1. track-and-field events
bu
noun, noun, used as a suffix
  1. department (in an organization); division; bureau (higher than a 課)
  2. club
  3. part; component; element
  4. category
counter
  1. counter for copies of a newspaper or magazine
no
particle
  1. indicates possessive (occasionally ん, orig. written 乃 or 之)
  2. nominalizes verbs and adjectives
  3. substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases
  4. (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion (often ん)
  5. (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis
  6. (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
tomodachi
noun
  1. friend; companion
ga
particle
  1. indicates sentence subject (occasionally object)
  2. indicates possessive (esp. in literary expressions)
conjunction
  1. but; however; still; and
  2. regardless of; whether (or not) (after the volitional form of a verb)
iru

te-form

ite
ichidan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to be (of animate objects); to exist
  2. to stay
ichidan verb, auxiliary verb
  1. to be ...-ing; to have been ...-ing (after the -te form of a verb; indicates continuing action or state)
soitsu
pronoun
  1. he; she; that person; that guy; that fellow
  2. that; that one; that thing
ha
particle
  1. topic marker particle (pronounced わ in modern Japanese)
  2. indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated)
  3. adds emphasis
tesuto
noun, suru verb
  1. examination; quiz; test
  2. test; tryout; trial
noun
  1. rehearsal (in filming)
mae
noun
  1. in front (of); before (e.g. a building)
noun, no adjective, adverb
  1. before; earlier; previously; prior; ago; (minutes) to (the hour)
noun, no adjective
  1. (the) front; frontal part; fore; head (e.g. of a line)
noun
  1. forward; ahead
  2. (in the) presence (of); in front (of someone)
no adjective
  1. previous (e.g. page); prior (e.g. engagement); first (e.g. half); former (e.g. example)
suffix
  1. portion; helping (after a noun or the -masu stem of a verb)
noun
  1. front (of one's body or clothing); breast (of a coat, kimono, etc.)
  2. privates; private parts
  3. criminal record; previous conviction; (a) prior
mo
particle
  1. too; also; in addition; as well; (not) either (in a negative sentence)
  2. both A and B; A as well as B; neither A nor B (in a negative sentence) (as AもBも)
  3. even; as much as; as many as; as far as; as long as; no less than; no fewer than (used for emphasis or to express absence of doubt regarding a quantity, etc.)
  4. even if; even though; although; in spite of (often as 〜ても, 〜でも, 〜とも, etc.)
adverb
  1. further; more; again; another; the other
sono
pre-noun adjectival
  1. that; the (something or someone distant from the speaker, close to the listener; actions of the listener, or ideas expressed or understood by the listener)
  2. part (as in "part two") (preceding a number)
interjection
  1. um ...; er ...; uh ...
ha
particle
  1. topic marker particle (pronounced わ in modern Japanese)
  2. indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated)
  3. adds emphasis
kuzusu

Plain Past Indicative Negative Form

kuzusanakatta
godan verb, transitive verb
  1. to destroy; to demolish; to pull down; to tear down; to level
  2. to disturb; to put into disorder; to throw off balance; to make shaky
  3. to relax (one's pose); to make oneself at ease
  4. to break (a bill); to change; to make change (oft. 札を崩す, etc.)
  5. to write in cursive style; to write in running style (oft. as 字を崩す)
  6. to break into a smile; to let off a smile (as 顔を崩す, etc.)
  7. to lower (a price)
bukatsu
noun
  1. club activities; extracurricular activities
nai
i adjective (negative)
  1. nonexistent; not being (there)
  2. unowned; not had; unpossessed
  3. unique
  4. not; impossible; won't happen (as ...ことがない, etc.; indicates negation, inexperience, unnecessariness or impossibility)
auxiliary adjective
  1. not (after the ren'youkei form of an adjective)
  2. to not be; to have not (after the -te form of a verb)
bun
noun, noun, used as a suffix
  1. part; portion; share
noun, used as a suffix
  1. amount; worth (as in "two days' worth"); enough (for)
noun
  1. one's means; one's place; one's lot; one's social position
  2. one's duty; one's part
  3. condition; state (of affairs); extent; rate (as in "at this rate")
noun, adverb
  1. in proportion to; just as much as; to the same degree
noun, used as a suffix
  1. content (e.g. alcohol); percentage
  2. equivalent to (e.g. an old brother)
kaette
adverb
  1. on the contrary; rather; all the more; instead
hima
noun, na adjective
  1. spare time; free time; leisure
noun
  1. time (e.g. time it takes to do something)
noun, na adjective
  1. time off; day off; vacation; holiday; leave
  2. quitting (one's job); firing someone; divorcing (one's spouse)
na adjective
  1. (being) inactive; (of one's business) slow
noun
  1. leaving; departing
ni
particle
  1. at (place, time); in; on; during
  2. to (direction, state); toward; into
  3. for (purpose)
  4. because of (reason); for; with
  5. by; from
  6. as (i.e. in the role of)
  7. per; in; for; a (e.g. "once a month")
  8. and; in addition to
  9. if; although
naru
godan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to become; to get; to grow; to be; to reach; to attain
  2. to result in; to prove to be
  3. to consist of; to be composed of
  4. to succeed; to be complete
  5. to change into; to be exchanged for
  6. to play a role
  7. to be promoted
godan verb
  1. to do ... (as お+masu-stem+になる, ご+noun+になる, etc.)
toiu
expression
  1. called; named; that says; that
  2. as many as; as much as (after a quantity)
  3. all ...; every single ... (as ...という...)
koto
noun
  1. thing; matter
  2. incident; occurrence; event; something serious; trouble; crisis
  3. circumstances; situation; state of affairs
  4. work; business; affair
  5. after an inflectable word, creates a noun phrase indicating something the speaker does not feel close to
noun, used as a suffix
  1. nominalizing suffix
  2. pretending to ...; playing make-believe ...
noun
  1. alias; also known as; otherwise known as; or (as AことB (A = alias, B = real name))
  2. necessity; need (as 〜ことはない)
  3. you should ...; I advise that you ...; it's important to ... (as 〜ことだ)
de
particle
  1. at; in (indicates location of action; にて is the formal literary form)
  2. at; when (indicates time of action)
  3. by; with (indicates means of action)
conjunction
  1. and then; so
auxiliary
  1. and; then (indicates continuing action; alternative form of 〜て used for some verb types)
particle
  1. let me tell you; don't you know (at sentence-end; indicates certainty, emphasis, etc.)
tesuto
noun, suru verb
  1. examination; quiz; test
  2. test; tryout; trial
noun
  1. rehearsal (in filming)
maeni
adverb
  1. ahead; before; ago
mae
noun
  1. in front (of); before (e.g. a building)
noun, no adjective, adverb
  1. before; earlier; previously; prior; ago; (minutes) to (the hour)
noun, no adjective
  1. (the) front; frontal part; fore; head (e.g. of a line)
noun
  1. forward; ahead
  2. (in the) presence (of); in front (of someone)
no adjective
  1. previous (e.g. page); prior (e.g. engagement); first (e.g. half); former (e.g. example)
suffix
  1. portion; helping (after a noun or the -masu stem of a verb)
noun
  1. front (of one's body or clothing); breast (of a coat, kimono, etc.)
  2. privates; private parts
  3. criminal record; previous conviction; (a) prior
ninaruto
expression
  1. when it becomes; when it comes to
ni
particle
  1. at (place, time); in; on; during
  2. to (direction, state); toward; into
  3. for (purpose)
  4. because of (reason); for; with
  5. by; from
  6. as (i.e. in the role of)
  7. per; in; for; a (e.g. "once a month")
  8. and; in addition to
  9. if; although
naru
godan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to become; to get; to grow; to be; to reach; to attain
  2. to result in; to prove to be
  3. to consist of; to be composed of
  4. to succeed; to be complete
  5. to change into; to be exchanged for
  6. to play a role
  7. to be promoted
godan verb
  1. to do ... (as お+masu-stem+になる, ご+noun+になる, etc.)
to
particle, conjunction
  1. if; when
  2. and
particle
  1. with
  2. used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.)
noun
  1. promoted pawn
particle
  1. indicates a question (at sentence end)
mainichi
noun, adverb
  1. every day
soitsu
pronoun
  1. he; she; that person; that guy; that fellow
  2. that; that one; that thing
n
interjection
  1. yes; yeah; uh huh
  2. huh?; what?
auxiliary verb, suffix
  1. not (negative verb ending used in informal speech; abbr. of negative verb ending ぬ)
particle
  1. 's; of; belonging to (abbr. of particle の; indicates possessive)
  2. at (place, time); in; on; during (abbr. of particle に, used esp. when it precedes the verb なる)
ie
noun
  1. house; residence; dwelling
  2. family; household
  3. lineage; family name
de
particle
  1. at; in (indicates location of action; にて is the formal literary form)
  2. at; when (indicates time of action)
  3. by; with (indicates means of action)
conjunction
  1. and then; so
auxiliary
  1. and; then (indicates continuing action; alternative form of 〜て used for some verb types)
particle
  1. let me tell you; don't you know (at sentence-end; indicates certainty, emphasis, etc.)
wo
particle
  1. indicates direct object of action
  2. indicates subject of causative expression
  3. indicates an area traversed
  4. indicates time (period) over which action takes place
  5. indicates point of departure or separation of action
  6. indicates object of desire, like, hate, etc.
Contraction of 「~て·いた」 to 「~て·た」
iru

Plain Past Indicative Form

ita
ichidan verb, auxiliary verb
  1. to be ...-ing; to have been ...-ing (after the -te form of a verb; indicates continuing action or state)
are
pronoun
  1. that; that thing (indicating something distant from both speaker and listener (in space, time or psychologically), or something understood without naming it directly)
  2. that person (used to refer to one's equals or inferiors)
  3. then; that time
  4. that place (over there)
noun
  1. down there (i.e. one's genitals)
  2. period; menses
ga
particle
  1. indicates sentence subject (occasionally object)
  2. indicates possessive (esp. in literary expressions)
conjunction
  1. but; however; still; and
  2. regardless of; whether (or not) (after the volitional form of a verb)
nakerya
interjection
  1. unless one ...; if one does not ...
ore
pronoun
  1. I; me (rough or arrogant)
mo
particle
  1. too; also; in addition; as well; (not) either (in a negative sentence)
  2. both A and B; A as well as B; neither A nor B (in a negative sentence) (as AもBも)
  3. even; as much as; as many as; as far as; as long as; no less than; no fewer than (used for emphasis or to express absence of doubt regarding a quantity, etc.)
  4. even if; even though; although; in spite of (often as 〜ても, 〜でも, 〜とも, etc.)
adverb
  1. further; more; again; another; the other
mousukoshi
expression
  1. a bit more; a bit longer
kouseiseki
noun
  1. good results
seiseki
noun
  1. results; record; grades; marks
toru

Potential Plain Past Indicative Form

toreta
godan verb, transitive verb
  1. to take; to pick up; to grab; to catch
  2. to pass; to hand; to give
  3. to get; to obtain; to acquire; to win; to receive; to earn; to take (e.g. a vacation)
  4. to adopt (a method, proposal, etc.); to take (a measure, attitude, etc.); to choose
  5. to remove; to get rid of; to take off
  6. to take away; to steal; to rob
  7. to eat; to have (e.g. lunch); to take (e.g. vitamins)
  8. to pick (e.g. flowers); to gather; to extract (e.g. juice); to catch (e.g. fish)
  9. to take up (time, space); to occupy; to spare; to set aside
  10. to secure; to reserve; to save; to put aside; to keep
  11. to take (e.g. a joke); to interpret; to understand; to make out; to grasp
  12. to record; to take down
  13. to subscribe to (e.g. a newspaper); to take; to buy; to get
  14. to order; to have delivered
  15. to charge; to fine; to take (tax)
  16. to take (e.g. a wife); to take on (e.g. an apprentice); to adopt; to accept
  17. to compete (in sumo, cards, etc.); to play
hazuda
expression
  1. be supposed or expected to (do); be sure to (do); ought to (do)
hazu
auxiliary
  1. should (be); bound (to be); expected (to be); must (be)
noun
  1. nock (of a bow)
  2. nock (of an arrow)
  3. nock-shaped grip (between thumb and forefinger)
  4. wooden frame on the tip of the mast of a Japanese ship that prevents the hawser from falling out
da
copula
  1. be; is (plain copula)
auxiliary verb
  1. did; (have) done (た after certain verb forms; indicates past or completed action)
  2. please; do (indicates light imperative)
ga
particle
  1. indicates sentence subject (occasionally object)
  2. indicates possessive (esp. in literary expressions)
conjunction
  1. but; however; still; and
  2. regardless of; whether (or not) (after the volitional form of a verb)

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