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I spent that day listening to the lonely scrapings of a pen. During that time, from time to time, I heard a Java sparrow twittering. It occurred to me that maybe Java sparrows twitter out of loneliness too. I walked out to the veranda to see. Nevertheless, flying to and fro between two perches busily and incessantly, it did not show the slightest hint of grievance.
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Vocabulary list

sonohi
expression, noun
  1. that day; the very same day
sono
pre-noun adjectival
  1. that; the (something or someone distant from the speaker, close to the listener; actions of the listener, or ideas expressed or understood by the listener)
  2. part (as in "part two") (preceding a number)
interjection
  1. um ...; er ...; uh ...
hi
noun
  1. day; days
  2. sun; sunshine; sunlight
  3. (the) day; daytime; daylight
  4. date; deadline
  5. (past) days; time (e.g. of one's childhood)
  6. case (esp. unfortunate); event (as 〜した日には, 〜と来た日には, etc.)
ha
particle
  1. topic marker particle (pronounced わ in modern Japanese)
  2. indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated)
  3. adds emphasis
ichinichi
noun
  1. one day
noun, adverb
  1. all day (long); throughout the day
noun
  1. first day of the month
ichi
numeric, prefix
  1. one (壱, 弌 and 壹 are used in legal documents)
no adjective, suffix
  1. best
no adjective
  1. first; foremost
noun
  1. beginning; start
noun, used as a prefix
  1. a (single); one (of many) (before a noun)
noun
  1. ace (playing card)
  2. bottom string (on a shamisen, etc.)
nichi
noun
  1. Sunday
suffix
  1. day (of the month) (also んち or ち)
suffix, counter
  1. counter for days (also んち or ち)
noun, noun, used as a suffix, noun, used as a prefix
  1. Japan
sabishii
i adjective
  1. lonely; lonesome; solitary; desolate
no
particle
  1. indicates possessive (occasionally ん, orig. written 乃 or 之)
  2. nominalizes verbs and adjectives
  3. substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases
  4. (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion (often ん)
  5. (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis
  6. (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
oto
noun, noun, used as a suffix
  1. sound; noise; report
  2. note
  3. fame
  4. Chinese-derived character reading
wo
particle
  1. indicates direct object of action
  2. indicates subject of causative expression
  3. indicates an area traversed
  4. indicates time (period) over which action takes place
  5. indicates point of departure or separation of action
  6. indicates object of desire, like, hate, etc.
kiku

te-form

kiite
godan verb, transitive verb
  1. to hear
  2. to listen (e.g. to music) (esp. 聴く)
  3. to ask; to enquire; to query (聴く is used in legal and official contexts)
  4. to hear about; to hear of; to learn of
  5. to follow (advice, order, etc.); to obey; to listen to; to comply with
  6. to hear (e.g. a plea); to grant (a request); to accept (e.g. an argument); to give consideration to
  7. to smell (esp. incense); to sample (a fragrance)
  8. to taste (alcohol); to try (also 利く)
kurasu

Plain Past Indicative Form

kurashita
godan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to live; to get along
  2. to spend (time)
sonoaida
sonokan
noun, adverb
  1. in the meanwhile; during the time
sono
pre-noun adjectival
  1. that; the (something or someone distant from the speaker, close to the listener; actions of the listener, or ideas expressed or understood by the listener)
  2. part (as in "part two") (preceding a number)
interjection
  1. um ...; er ...; uh ...
aidani
adverb
  1. while; during (the time when)
aida
noun
  1. space (between); gap; interval; distance; stretch
noun, adverb
  1. period of time (during, while); duration; interval
noun
  1. between (two parties or things)
  2. among (a group)
  3. relations (between); relationship
  4. midpoint; average; halfway; middle ground
conjunction
  1. due to; because of
kan
noun, suffix
  1. interval; period of time
noun, suffix, adverb
  1. among; between; inter-
noun
  1. good opportunity; chance
  2. estrangement; discord; alienation
  3. spy; secret agent
niha
expression, particle
  1. to; for; on; in; at (emphasises word marked by に)
  2. in order to; for
  3. as for; regarding (indicates respect for subject of sentence)
  4. while it is (was) the case that ...; indeed ... (but); certainly ... (but) (as AにはAが...; emphasizes the repeated word, followed by a contrasting statement)
ni
particle
  1. at (place, time); in; on; during
  2. to (direction, state); toward; into
  3. for (purpose)
  4. because of (reason); for; with
  5. by; from
  6. as (i.e. in the role of)
  7. per; in; for; a (e.g. "once a month")
  8. and; in addition to
  9. if; although
ha
particle
  1. topic marker particle (pronounced わ in modern Japanese)
  2. indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated)
  3. adds emphasis
oriori
adverb
  1. occasionally; now and then; from time to time
chiyo
noun
  1. thousand years
  2. very long period; forever
to
particle, conjunction
  1. if; when
  2. and
particle
  1. with
  2. used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.)
noun
  1. promoted pawn
particle
  1. indicates a question (at sentence end)
iu
godan verb
  1. to say; to utter; to declare
  2. to name; to call
  3. to go (e.g. "the alarm went ping"); to make a noise
koe
noun
  1. voice
  2. singing (of a bird); chirping (of an insect); hoot
  3. voice; opinion (as expressed in words); view; wish; attitude; will
  4. sound
  5. sense (of something's arrival); feeling (usu. as ~の声を聞く)
  6. voice; voiced sound
mo
particle
  1. too; also; in addition; as well; (not) either (in a negative sentence)
  2. both A and B; A as well as B; neither A nor B (in a negative sentence) (as AもBも)
  3. even; as much as; as many as; as far as; as long as; no less than; no fewer than (used for emphasis or to express absence of doubt regarding a quantity, etc.)
  4. even if; even though; although; in spite of (often as 〜ても, 〜でも, 〜とも, etc.)
adverb
  1. further; more; again; another; the other
kikoeru

Plain Past Indicative Form

kikoeta
ichidan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to be heard; to be audible
  2. to be said to be; to be reputed
bunchou
noun
  1. Java sparrow; Java rice finch (Lonchura oryzivora, Padda oryzivora)
mo
particle
  1. too; also; in addition; as well; (not) either (in a negative sentence)
  2. both A and B; A as well as B; neither A nor B (in a negative sentence) (as AもBも)
  3. even; as much as; as many as; as far as; as long as; no less than; no fewer than (used for emphasis or to express absence of doubt regarding a quantity, etc.)
  4. even if; even though; although; in spite of (often as 〜ても, 〜でも, 〜とも, etc.)
adverb
  1. further; more; again; another; the other
sabishii
i adjective
  1. lonely; lonesome; solitary; desolate
kara
particle
  1. from (e.g. time, place, numerical quantity); since
  2. from (originator); by
  3. because; since (follows verbs, adjectives)
  4. out of (constituent, part)
  5. through (e.g. window, vestibule)
  6. after; since (following the te-form of a verb)
  7. expresses sympathy or warning
naku
godan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to make sound (of an animal); to call; to cry; to whine; to sing; to chirp
  2. to make a meld call (e.g. pung, kong)
no
particle
  1. indicates possessive (occasionally ん, orig. written 乃 or 之)
  2. nominalizes verbs and adjectives
  3. substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases
  4. (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion (often ん)
  5. (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis
  6. (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
de
particle
  1. at; in (indicates location of action; にて is the formal literary form)
  2. at; when (indicates time of action)
  3. by; with (indicates means of action)
conjunction
  1. and then; so
auxiliary
  1. and; then (indicates continuing action; alternative form of 〜て used for some verb types)
particle
  1. let me tell you; don't you know (at sentence-end; indicates certainty, emphasis, etc.)
ha
particle
  1. topic marker particle (pronounced わ in modern Japanese)
  2. indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated)
  3. adds emphasis
nakarou
expression
  1. probably not so (presumptive form of ない)
ka
particle
  1. yes?; no?; isn't it?; is it? (used at sentence-end; indicates a question (sometimes rhetorical))
  2. or; whether or not (after each alternative)
  3. some- (e.g. something, someone) (after an interrogative)
  4. hmm; huh (indicates doubt, uncertainty, etc.; sometimes after other particles)
prefix
  1. very (emphatic prefix; usu. before an adjective)
suffix
  1. -al; -ial; -ic; -ical; -ish; -y (suffix forming adjectives or adverbs; after an indeclinable word)
adverb
  1. in that way
to
particle, conjunction
  1. if; when
  2. and
particle
  1. with
  2. used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.)
noun
  1. promoted pawn
particle
  1. indicates a question (at sentence end)
kangaeru

Plain Past Indicative Form

kangaeta
ichidan verb, transitive verb
  1. to think (about, of); to think over; to ponder; to contemplate; to reflect (on); to meditate (on)
  2. to consider; to bear in mind; to allow for; to take into consideration
  3. to think (that); to believe; to hold (a view); to judge; to conclude; to suspect
  4. to intend (to do); to think of (doing); to plan
  5. to predict; to anticipate; to expect; to imagine
  6. to come up with; to think up; to contrive; to devise
  7. to consider (as); to regard (as); to look on (as); to take; to view
shikashi
conjunction
  1. however; but
engawa
noun
  1. engawa; external corridor on the outer side of traditional Japanese houses
  2. bone at the base of a fin; meat at the base of a fin (esp. of a flatfish)
he
particle
  1. to; towards; for (indicates direction or goal; pronounced え in modern Japanese)
deru

te-form

dete
ichidan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to leave; to exit; to go out; to come out; to get out
  2. to leave (on a journey); to depart; to start out; to set out
  3. to move forward
  4. to come to; to get to; to lead to; to reach
  5. to appear; to come out; to emerge; to surface; to come forth; to turn up; to be found; to be detected; to be discovered; to be exposed; to show; to be exhibited; to be on display
  6. to appear (in print); to be published; to be announced; to be issued; to be listed; to come out
  7. to attend; to participate; to take part; to enter (an event); to play in; to perform
  8. to be stated; to be expressed; to come up; to be brought up; to be raised
  9. to sell
  10. to exceed; to go over
  11. to stick out; to protrude
  12. to break out; to occur; to start; to originate
  13. to be produced
  14. to come from; to be derived from
  15. to be given; to get; to receive; to be offered; to be provided; to be presented; to be submitted; to be handed in; to be turned in; to be paid
  16. to answer (phone, door, etc.); to get
  17. to assume (an attitude); to act; to behave
  18. to pick up (speed, etc.); to gain
  19. to flow (e.g. tears); to run; to bleed
  20. to graduate
  21. to ejaculate; to cum
miru
ichidan verb, transitive verb
  1. to see; to look; to watch; to view; to observe
  2. to examine; to look over; to assess; to check; to judge
  3. to look after; to attend to; to take care of; to keep an eye on
  4. to experience; to meet with (misfortune, success, etc.)
auxiliary verb, ichidan verb
  1. to try ...; to have a go at ...; to give ... a try (after the -te form of a verb)
  2. to see (that) ...; to find (that) ... (as 〜てみると, 〜てみたら, 〜てみれば, etc.)
to
particle, conjunction
  1. if; when
  2. and
particle
  1. with
  2. used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.)
noun
  1. promoted pawn
particle
  1. indicates a question (at sentence end)
nihon
noun
  1. two (long cylindrical things)
ni
numeric
  1. two (ふ and ふう used mainly when counting aloud; 弐, 貳 and 貮 are used in legal documents.)
honno
pre-noun adjectival
  1. mere; only; just; slight
hon
noun
  1. book; volume; script
prefix
  1. this; present
  2. main; head
  3. real; regular
suffix, counter
  1. counter for long cylindrical things; counter for films, TV shows, etc.; counter for goals, home runs, etc.; counter for telephone calls (sometimes pronounced ぼん or ぽん)
no
particle
  1. indicates possessive (occasionally ん, orig. written 乃 or 之)
  2. nominalizes verbs and adjectives
  3. substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases
  4. (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion (often ん)
  5. (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis
  6. (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
domari
noun, used as a suffix
  1. stopping at; going no further than
konoma
noun
  1. in the trees
wo
particle
  1. indicates direct object of action
  2. indicates subject of causative expression
  3. indicates an area traversed
  4. indicates time (period) over which action takes place
  5. indicates point of departure or separation of action
  6. indicates object of desire, like, hate, etc.
kanata
pronoun
  1. beyond; across; the other side; the distance
he
particle
  1. to; towards; for (indicates direction or goal; pronounced え in modern Japanese)
tobu

Alternative Present Indicative Form

tondari
godan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to fly; to soar (esp. 飛ぶ)
  2. to jump; to leap; to spring; to bound; to hop (esp. 跳ぶ)
  3. to spatter; to scatter; to splash; to fly (e.g. of sparks)
  4. to hurry; to rush
  5. to flee; to run off; to escape
  6. to disappear; to vanish; to fade; to thin out
  7. to break off; to come off; to fall off; to blow (of a fuse)
  8. to be sent out (of an order); to fly (of false rumours, catcalls, etc.)
  9. to come flying (of a punch, kick, etc.)
  10. to be missing (of a page, stitch, etc.); to skip; to jump (e.g. of a conversation)
konata
konta
noun
  1. this way; here
  2. the person in question; he; she; him; her
  3. since (a time in the past); prior to (a time in the future)
pronoun
  1. me
  2. you
he
particle
  1. to; towards; for (indicates direction or goal; pronounced え in modern Japanese)
tobu

Alternative Present Indicative Form

tondari
godan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to fly; to soar (esp. 飛ぶ)
  2. to jump; to leap; to spring; to bound; to hop (esp. 跳ぶ)
  3. to spatter; to scatter; to splash; to fly (e.g. of sparks)
  4. to hurry; to rush
  5. to flee; to run off; to escape
  6. to disappear; to vanish; to fade; to thin out
  7. to break off; to come off; to fall off; to blow (of a fuse)
  8. to be sent out (of an order); to fly (of false rumours, catcalls, etc.)
  9. to come flying (of a punch, kick, etc.)
  10. to be missing (of a page, stitch, etc.); to skip; to jump (e.g. of a conversation)
nai

Adverbial Form

naku
i adjective (negative)
  1. nonexistent; not being (there)
  2. unowned; not had; unpossessed
  3. unique
  4. not; impossible; won't happen (as ...ことがない, etc.; indicates negation, inexperience, unnecessariness or impossibility)
auxiliary adjective
  1. not (after the ren'youkei form of an adjective)
  2. to not be; to have not (after the -te form of a verb)
ikitsumodoritsu
expression, suru verb
  1. going up and down; going back and forth
iku

masu stem

iki
godan verb (iku/yuku), intransitive verb
  1. to go; to move (in a direction or towards a specific location); to head (towards); to be transported (towards); to reach
  2. to proceed; to take place (い sometimes omitted in auxiliary use)
  3. to pass through; to come and go
  4. to walk
  5. to die; to pass away
  6. to do (in a specific way)
  7. to stream; to flow
godan verb (iku/yuku), auxiliary verb
  1. to continue (after the -te form of a verb)
godan verb (iku/yuku), intransitive verb
  1. to have an orgasm; to come; to cum
  2. to trip; to get high; to have a drug-induced hallucination
tsu
conjunction
  1. indicates two contrasting actions (form: ...つ...つ)
particle
  1. indicates possessive (often found in place names and compound words)
modoru

masu stem

modori
godan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to turn back (e.g. half-way)
  2. to return; to go back
  3. to recover (e.g. something lost); to be returned
  4. to rebound; to spring back
tsu
conjunction
  1. indicates two contrasting actions (form: ...つ...つ)
particle
  1. indicates possessive (often found in place names and compound words)
suru

te-form

shite
suru verb (irregular)
  1. to do; to carry out; to perform
  2. to cause to become; to make (into); to turn (into)
  3. to serve as; to act as; to work as
  4. to wear (clothes, a facial expression, etc.)
  5. to judge as being; to view as being; to think of as; to treat as; to use as (as 〜にする,〜とする)
  6. to decide on; to choose (as 〜にする)
suru verb (irregular), intransitive verb
  1. to be sensed (of a smell, noise, etc.) (as 〜がする)
  2. to be (in a state, condition, etc.)
  3. to be worth; to cost
  4. to pass (of time); to elapse
suru verb (irregular), transitive verb
  1. to place, or raise, person A to a post or status B (as AをBにする)
  2. to transform A to B; to make A into B; to exchange A for B (as AをBにする)
  3. to make use of A for B; to view A as B; to handle A as if it were B (as AをBにする)
  4. to feel A about B (as AをBにする)
suffix, suru verb (irregular)
  1. verbalizing suffix (applies to nouns noted in this dictionary with the part of speech "vs")
auxiliary verb, suru verb (irregular)
  1. creates a humble verb (after a noun prefixed with "o" or "go")
  2. to be just about to; to be just starting to; to try to; to attempt to (as 〜うとする,〜ようとする)
iru
ichidan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to be (of animate objects); to exist
  2. to stay
ichidan verb, auxiliary verb
  1. to be ...-ing; to have been ...-ing (after the -te form of a verb; indicates continuing action or state)
sukoshimo
adverb
  1. (not) at all; (not) a bit; (not) in the least; (not) in the slightest (with neg. sentence)
sukoshi
adverb, noun
  1. small quantity; little; few; something
  2. little while
  3. short distance
mo
particle
  1. too; also; in addition; as well; (not) either (in a negative sentence)
  2. both A and B; A as well as B; neither A nor B (in a negative sentence) (as AもBも)
  3. even; as much as; as many as; as far as; as long as; no less than; no fewer than (used for emphasis or to express absence of doubt regarding a quantity, etc.)
  4. even if; even though; although; in spite of (often as 〜ても, 〜でも, 〜とも, etc.)
adverb
  1. further; more; again; another; the other
fuhei
noun, no adjective, na adjective
  1. discontent; dissatisfaction; complaint; grievance
rashii
auxiliary adjective
  1. seeming ...; appearing ... (expresses judgement based on evidence, reason or trustworthy hearsay)
suffix, i adjective
  1. -ish; like a ...; typical of ...; appropriate for ...; becoming of ...; worthy of the name ... (after a noun, adverb or adj. stem)
yousu
noun
  1. state; state of affairs; situation; circumstances
  2. appearance; look; aspect
  3. sign; indication
ha
particle
  1. topic marker particle (pronounced わ in modern Japanese)
  2. indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated)
  3. adds emphasis
nai

Plain Past Indicative Form

nakatta
i adjective (negative)
  1. nonexistent; not being (there)
  2. unowned; not had; unpossessed
  3. unique
  4. not; impossible; won't happen (as ...ことがない, etc.; indicates negation, inexperience, unnecessariness or impossibility)
auxiliary adjective
  1. not (after the ren'youkei form of an adjective)
  2. to not be; to have not (after the -te form of a verb)

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