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Furigana Show|Add to ▼ Source Totoeba Project
Recent investigations have demonstrated that the application of Emmet's theory is not always without defects.
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Vocabulary list

saikin
noun, no adjective, adverb
  1. recently; lately; these days; nowadays; right now
no adjective
  1. nearest; closest
no
particle
  1. indicates possessive (occasionally ん, orig. written 乃 or 之)
  2. nominalizes verbs and adjectives
  3. substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases
  4. (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion (often ん)
  5. (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis
  6. (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
kenkyuu
noun, suru verb
  1. study; research; investigation
ga
particle
  1. indicates sentence subject (occasionally object)
  2. indicates possessive (esp. in literary expressions)
conjunction
  1. but; however; still; and
  2. regardless of; whether (or not) (after the volitional form of a verb)
shoumei
noun, suru verb
  1. proof; testimony; demonstration; verification; certification
suru

te-form

shite
suru verb (irregular)
  1. to do; to carry out; to perform
  2. to cause to become; to make (into); to turn (into)
  3. to serve as; to act as; to work as
  4. to wear (clothes, a facial expression, etc.)
  5. to judge as being; to view as being; to think of as; to treat as; to use as (as 〜にする,〜とする)
  6. to decide on; to choose (as 〜にする)
suru verb (irregular), intransitive verb
  1. to be sensed (of a smell, noise, etc.) (as 〜がする)
  2. to be (in a state, condition, etc.)
  3. to be worth; to cost
  4. to pass (of time); to elapse
suru verb (irregular), transitive verb
  1. to place, or raise, person A to a post or status B (as AをBにする)
  2. to transform A to B; to make A into B; to exchange A for B (as AをBにする)
  3. to make use of A for B; to view A as B; to handle A as if it were B (as AをBにする)
  4. to feel A about B (as AをBにする)
suffix, suru verb (irregular)
  1. verbalizing suffix (applies to nouns noted in this dictionary with the part of speech "vs")
auxiliary verb, suru verb (irregular)
  1. creates a humble verb (after a noun prefixed with "o" or "go")
  2. to be just about to; to be just starting to; to try to; to attempt to (as 〜うとする,〜ようとする)
iru
ichidan verb, intransitive verb
  1. to be (of animate objects); to exist
  2. to stay
ichidan verb, auxiliary verb
  1. to be ...-ing; to have been ...-ing (after the -te form of a verb; indicates continuing action or state)
koto
noun
  1. thing; matter
  2. incident; occurrence; event; something serious; trouble; crisis
  3. circumstances; situation; state of affairs
  4. work; business; affair
  5. after an inflectable word, creates a noun phrase indicating something the speaker does not feel close to
noun, used as a suffix
  1. nominalizing suffix
  2. pretending to ...; playing make-believe ...
noun
  1. alias; also known as; otherwise known as; or (as AことB (A = alias, B = real name))
  2. necessity; need (as 〜ことはない)
  3. you should ...; I advise that you ...; it's important to ... (as 〜ことだ)
ha
particle
  1. topic marker particle (pronounced わ in modern Japanese)
  2. indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated)
  3. adds emphasis
riron
noun
  1. theory
wo
particle
  1. indicates direct object of action
  2. indicates subject of causative expression
  3. indicates an area traversed
  4. indicates time (period) over which action takes place
  5. indicates point of departure or separation of action
  6. indicates object of desire, like, hate, etc.
tekiyou
noun, suru verb
  1. applying (e.g. a technology); adoption
suru
suru verb (irregular)
  1. to do; to carry out; to perform
  2. to cause to become; to make (into); to turn (into)
  3. to serve as; to act as; to work as
  4. to wear (clothes, a facial expression, etc.)
  5. to judge as being; to view as being; to think of as; to treat as; to use as (as 〜にする,〜とする)
  6. to decide on; to choose (as 〜にする)
suru verb (irregular), intransitive verb
  1. to be sensed (of a smell, noise, etc.) (as 〜がする)
  2. to be (in a state, condition, etc.)
  3. to be worth; to cost
  4. to pass (of time); to elapse
suru verb (irregular), transitive verb
  1. to place, or raise, person A to a post or status B (as AをBにする)
  2. to transform A to B; to make A into B; to exchange A for B (as AをBにする)
  3. to make use of A for B; to view A as B; to handle A as if it were B (as AをBにする)
  4. to feel A about B (as AをBにする)
suffix, suru verb (irregular)
  1. verbalizing suffix (applies to nouns noted in this dictionary with the part of speech "vs")
auxiliary verb, suru verb (irregular)
  1. creates a humble verb (after a noun prefixed with "o" or "go")
  2. to be just about to; to be just starting to; to try to; to attempt to (as 〜うとする,〜ようとする)
koto
noun
  1. thing; matter
  2. incident; occurrence; event; something serious; trouble; crisis
  3. circumstances; situation; state of affairs
  4. work; business; affair
  5. after an inflectable word, creates a noun phrase indicating something the speaker does not feel close to
noun, used as a suffix
  1. nominalizing suffix
  2. pretending to ...; playing make-believe ...
noun
  1. alias; also known as; otherwise known as; or (as AことB (A = alias, B = real name))
  2. necessity; need (as 〜ことはない)
  3. you should ...; I advise that you ...; it's important to ... (as 〜ことだ)
ga
particle
  1. indicates sentence subject (occasionally object)
  2. indicates possessive (esp. in literary expressions)
conjunction
  1. but; however; still; and
  2. regardless of; whether (or not) (after the volitional form of a verb)
tsuneni
adverb
  1. always; constantly
kekkan
noun
  1. defect; fault; flaw; deformity; deficiency; shortage; gap
nashi
noun, noun, used as a suffix
  1. without
noun
  1. unacceptable; not alright; unsatisfactory
toha
expression, particle
  1. indicates word or phrase being defined
  2. used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.) (indicates contrast or adds emphasis to a negative statement)
  3. with (more emphatic than と)
  4. (not) as much as; (not) so much as (with neg. verb)
  5. the fact that; to think that; such a thing as (indicates surprise, disbelief, anger, etc.; sometimes at sentence end)
to
particle, conjunction
  1. if; when
  2. and
particle
  1. with
  2. used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.)
noun
  1. promoted pawn
particle
  1. indicates a question (at sentence end)
ha
particle
  1. topic marker particle (pronounced わ in modern Japanese)
  2. indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated)
  3. adds emphasis
ieru
ieru

Plain Present Indicative Negative Form

ienai
ichidan verb
  1. to be possible to say; to be able to say
expression
  1. said; have said (oft. as. 言えるごとく)
toiu
expression
  1. called; named; that says; that
  2. as many as; as much as (after a quantity)
  3. all ...; every single ... (as ...という...)
koto
noun
  1. thing; matter
  2. incident; occurrence; event; something serious; trouble; crisis
  3. circumstances; situation; state of affairs
  4. work; business; affair
  5. after an inflectable word, creates a noun phrase indicating something the speaker does not feel close to
noun, used as a suffix
  1. nominalizing suffix
  2. pretending to ...; playing make-believe ...
noun
  1. alias; also known as; otherwise known as; or (as AことB (A = alias, B = real name))
  2. necessity; need (as 〜ことはない)
  3. you should ...; I advise that you ...; it's important to ... (as 〜ことだ)
dearu
copula, godan verb (irregular)
  1. be; is
de
particle
  1. at; in (indicates location of action; にて is the formal literary form)
  2. at; when (indicates time of action)
  3. by; with (indicates means of action)
conjunction
  1. and then; so
auxiliary
  1. and; then (indicates continuing action; alternative form of 〜て used for some verb types)
particle
  1. let me tell you; don't you know (at sentence-end; indicates certainty, emphasis, etc.)
aru
godan verb (irregular), intransitive verb
  1. to be; to exist; to live (usu. of inanimate objects)
  2. to have
  3. to be located
  4. to be equipped with
  5. to happen; to come about

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